D3.1 Report on macro level existing and emerging cyber behavioural and online terrorist concerns
This deliverable maps, compares and triangulates existing and emerging national perspectives, appertaining to the opportunities new technologies offer for the four key areas of focus of the PROPHETS project, namely terrorist-related hate speech, terrorist financing, terrorist-generated content, terrorist recruitment and training in the online realm . The deliverable uses a mixed methodology and takes a macro approach which draws together the perspectives of seven European countries to explore how existing and emerging forms of the four threat areas within a terrorism context are influenced and shaped by global and national conditions. The deliverable, as components of its methodology, utilises a PESTL methodology alongside developing a preliminary study that incorporates an Expert Horizon Threat Assessment to explore how new technologies combined with political, economic, social, technological and legal factors can be used by terrorist organisations to either conduct, encourage or support these four threat areas. By using a systematic approach, the deliverable presents a European based assessment, which unearths several key themes that can be drawn from the text. The results show how terrorist organisations are taking advantage of national-based factors to encourage and conduct radicalisation-related online activities. The findings also demonstrate that the evolution of technology has been exploited by terrorist organisations, leading to identifying the importance of horizon threats that are perceived as future security challenges for European countries. The purpose of this deliverable is to create a foundational contextual knowledge base to underpin the PROPHETS project, specifically supporting the development of end user requirements in WP4, as well as facilitate the knowledge transfer to other deliverables in the wider WP3 research scope.
D3.2 Micro level report on vulnerable actor behavioural radicalisation
This overview is based on a narrative literature review with 270 eligible studies on radicalisation in Europe. With increasing internet penetration, new opportunities arise providing a pool of offenders engaging in (terrorist-related) hate speech, terrorist financing, terrorist-generated content, terrorist recruitment and training in the online realm. While hate speech – the way it is defined by PROPHETS – is not necessarily a crime but it might, depending on its scope and target audience, the three other radicalisation-related online activities clearly fall into the realm of cybercrime, for instance radical groups use the Internet for spreading their propaganda (including hate speech and terrorist-generated content) and influencing individuals (including minors) to follow their cause (i.e. recruitment). Online radicalisation is a process in which an individuals’ moral, ethical, logical and emotional societal norms and awareness are compromised through the use of online activities, leading to an increased risk of supporting, or directly engaging in, possibly illegal and antisocietal activities. Most researchers agree on a number of push and pull factors or micro (individual) level factors that enhance the probability of violent radicalisation. Most important push factors include perceived uncertainty, traumatic experiences, and social disengagement. Important pull factors are: lowered sense of belonging, risk behaviour, and radical peers. The report will contribute to the development of outputs within WP5, WP6 (and related to that D3.3) and WP7.
D3.3 Meso-macro level report on driving factors of behavioural radicalisation
This task will focus on the interrelations between lawful and unlawful manifestations of radicalisation online within the framework of the behavioural pressures that the society (macro level) and terrorist networks, groups and organisations (meso level) exert on actors with specific vulnerabilities (micro level), encouraging them to engage, support, or participate in (terrorist-related) hate speech, terrorist financing, terrorist-generated content, terrorist recruitment and training in the online realm.
D3.4 End user recommendations on best practices for the reduction and remedy of Behavioural Radicalisation Online
… coming soon!
D3.5 Living Lab report on CaaS
… coming soon!
D3.6 Report on the citizens' current perceptions and understanding of cybercrime
… coming soon!