Definitions of PROPHETS


Terrorism

"[...] Terrorist offences are defined as acts committed with the aim of 'seriously intimidating a population', 'unduly compelling a government or international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act', or 'seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation' [...]". More on the parliament's definition of Terrorism here.

Radicalisation

"Radicalisation can be understood as a phased and complex process in which an individual or a group embraces a radical ideology or belief that accepts, uses or condones violence, including acts of terrorism within the meaning of the Directive on combatting terrorism, to reach a specific political or ideological purpose. While radicalisation is not a enw phenomenon, the trends, means and patterns of radicalisation have evolved. Home-grown lone actors and (returning) foreign terrorist fighters raise security issues and specific challenges for prevent work, while the internet and social media give extremist and terrorist groups and their sympathisers new opportunities for mobilisation and communication." More on the European Commission's definition of radicalisation here.

Behavioural Radicalisation

For PROPHETS the following definition was used: Behavioural radicalisation is the process in which an individuals' moral, ethical, logical and emotional societal norms and awareness are compromised, leading to an increased risk of supporting, or directly engaging, in, illegal and anti-societal activities.

In the context of PROPHETS it can be seen as increased engagement with cybercrime and online aspects of terrorism. 

Online Behavioural Radicalisation

The same as above, but achieved online through:
The processes that slowly isolate and demoralise individuals towards either carrying out or supporting extreme acts. 
PROPHETS' main concern is the identification of online factors that lead to behavioural radicalisation, which could be used for predication of perpetuating acts of terrorist related cybercrime. 

Cybercrime

Cybercrime consists of criminal acts that are committed online by using electronic communications networks and information systems. It is a borderless problem that can be classified in three broad definitions: 

  • Crimes specific to the internet, such as attacks against information systems or phishing (such as fake bank websites to solicit passwords enabling access to victims' bank accounts). 
  • Online fraud and forgery. Large-scale fraud can be committed online through instruments such as identity theft, phishing, spam and malicious code. 
  • Illegal online content, including child sexual abuse material, incitement to racial hatred, incitement to terrorist acts and glorification of violence, terrorism, racism and xenophobia. 

For these definitions and more information click here

Terrorist Cybercriminality

Terrorist cyber criminality is the primary focus of PROPHETS. It refers specifically to terrorist online illegal actions. The key areas are listed below, with the exception of terrorist communications (signals) as this area of investigation and detection lies heavily with intelligence agencies deploying targeted surveillance. 

Specifically PROPHETS is concerned with: 

1. Hate speech and harassment (including incitement)

2. Terrorist generated content

3. Recruitment and training

4. Financing

Demoralisation

In the context of PROPHETS, we consider demoralisation as deliberate corruption and undermine that undermine the moral standards of an individual. 

Desensitisation

"The process of causing someone to experience something, usually an emotion or a pain, less strongly than before." For more information on this please click here

For PROPHETS desensitisation is particularly relevant for the process at which people may become detached from the suffering of others, for example, victims of terrorism and organised crime.