Definitions of PROPHETS

Key Terminology

Terrorism

Terrorism is defined in a twofold manner:

(1) It is aimed at one or more of the following three goals:

      (a) seriously intimidating a population;

      (b) unduly compelling a government or an international organisation to perform or abstain from performing any act;

      (c) seriously destabilising or destroying the fundamental political, constitutional, economic or social structures of a country or an international organisation.

(2)It encompasses at least one of the following measures:

      (a) attacks upon a person’s life which may cause death;

      (b) attacks upon the physical integrity of a person;

      (c) kidnapping or hostage-taking;

      (d) causing extensive destruction to a government or public facility, a transport system, an infrastructure facility, including an information system, a fixed platform located on the continental shelf, a public place or private property likely to endanger human life or result in major economic loss;

      (e) seizure of aircraft, ships or other means of public or goods transport;

      (f) manufacture, possession, acquisition, transport, supply or use of explosives or weapons, including chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear weapons, as well as research into, and development of, chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear weapons;

      (g) release of dangerous substances, or causing fires, floods or explosions, the effect of which is to endanger human life;

      (h) interfering with or disrupting the supply of water, power or any other fundamental natural resource, the effect of which is to endanger human life;

      (i) illegal system interference and illegal data interference.


Online Hate Speech

Broadly speaking, hate speech is a narrow, specific category of speech that constitutes a discursive manifestation of the marginalisation, discrimination and exclusion suffered by those groups vulnerable to that status (Gelber, 2019). More specifically, online hate speech is understood as all forms of online expression which disseminate, promote or justify racism, xenophobia, antisemitism or other forms of intolerance based on hate, including intolerance which is expressed in the form of aggressive nationalism and ethnocentricity, discrimination and hostility to minorities, migrants and people with a migrant background (adapted from: Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers, 1997).


Online Terrorist Financing

Providing or collecting funds online with the intention that they be used, or in the knowledge that they are to be used, in full or in part, to commit, or to contribute to the commission of, any of the aforementioned terrorist offences (adapted from: European Parliament & The Council of the European Union, 2017).


Online Terrorist Generated Content

Making available of an online message to the public, with the intent to incite the commission of one of the aforementioned terrorist offences where such conduct, directly or indirectly, such as by the glorification of terrorist acts, advocates the commission of terrorist offences, thereby causing a danger that one or more such offences may be committed (adapted from: European Parliament & The Council of the European Union, 2017).


Online Terrorist Recruitement and Training

Online recruitment is understood as soliciting another person online to commit or contribute to the commission of one of the aforementioned terrorist offences, whereas online training is defined as providing online instruction on the making or use of explosives, firearms or other weapons or noxious or hazardous substances, or on other specific methods or techniques, for the purpose of committing, or contributing to the commission of, one of the aforementioned terrorist offences, knowing that the skills provided are intended to be used for this purpose (adapted from: European Parliament & The Council of the European Union, 2017).

Further Terminology

Counter-Radicalisation

A package of social, political, legal and educational and economic programmes specifically designed to deter disaffected (and possibly already radicalised) individuals from crossing the line and becoming terrorists. Counter-radicalisation is therefore concentrated on prevention (United Nations, 2008).


CVE (Countering Violent Extremism) Measures

CVE refers to the “soft” side of counterterrorism strategies that tackle the drivers which lead people to engage in politically or ideologically-motivated violence. The idea underpinning CVE is that violent extremists should not be fought exclusively with intelligence, police, and military means. The structural causes of violent extremism must also be tackled, including intolerance, government failure, and political, economic, and social marginalization (Frazer & Nünlist, 2015).


Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying involves the use of information and communication technologies such as e-mail, cell phone, and pager text messages, instant messaging, defamatory personal websites, and defamatory online personal polling websites to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group that is intended to harm others (Belsey, n.d.).


Cybercrime

Cybercrime is defined very broadly as ‘any crime that involves a computer and a network’ (Rotich, Metto, Siele, & Muketha, 2014), which encompasses crimes that use computer systems and networks, but it also includes crimes that target computers. One can distinguish between cyber-dependent crimes (in this regard, the project’s focus is on hate speech, terrorist financing, terrorist-generated content, terrorist recruitment and training) and cyber-enabled crimes (McGuire & Dowling, 2013).


Cyber-Dependent Crimes

Cyber-dependent crimes are traditional crimes facilitated by the use of ITC, e.g. certain forms of cyberbullying, fraud, identity theft, or stalking; unauthorized trespassing into a computer system (i.e. hacking) to steal information (e.g. any form of fraud, identity theft, phishing) or harm the system (e.g. malware, computer viruses). The project’s focus is on hate speech, terrorist financing, terrorist-generated content, terrorist recruitment and training (McGuire & Dowling, 2013).


Cyber-Enabled Crimes

Offences that are new due to the cyberspace, e.g. malware, viruses, phishing; involves special knowledge regarding cyberspace rather than computing skills (McGuire & Dowling, 2013).


Data Controller

Data controller means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data (GDPR.EU, 2018a).


Data Processing

Data processing means any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether or not by automated means, such as collection, recording, organization, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction (GDPR.EU, 2018a).


Data Potection Officer (DPO)

Either an organisational / formal DPO or, if the organisation does not have one, a person who will take on this role for the purposes of the project and act as a single point of contact, as well as providing assurances about compliance, using the forms provided (GDPR.EU, 2018a).


De-Radicalisation

Programmes that are generally directed against individuals who have become radical with the aim of re-integrating them into society or at least dissuading them from violence. De-radicalisation seeks to reverse the process by helping to refute extremist ideologies and facilitate the departure of individuals from extremist group (United Nations, 2008).


Efficacy

The ability to produce the intended result. It is the extent to which an intervention does more good than harm under ideal circumstances. In other words, in this paper efficacy can be defined as the performance of an intervention under ideal and controlled circumstances, whereas effectiveness refers to its performance under real conditions (Singal, Higgins, & Waljee, 2014).


Evaluation

A systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to provide a means to judge actions and activities in terms of criteria and standards and to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. In the project context, in order to improve as well as judge, the evaluation should provide an explanation about what happens and would have to be done differently for different outcomes to be achieved. It is in this explanatory mode that evaluation overlaps most directly with our objective (DFID, 2005).


Extremism

The vocal or active opposition to fundamental western values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs (HM Government, 2011).


Functionality

The quality of being useful, practical, and right for the purpose for the PROPHETS platform and its tools. Is the actual capacity to achieve the objective for which they have been created. Functionality is therefore defined as the capacity of the platform to answer to the specific user requirements collected from the LEAs belonging to the Consortium at the beginning of the project.


Impact

A marked effect or influence and consists of positive and negative, primary and secondary long- term effects produced by a given intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. In this project impact is the effect that the activity carries out and its results on the problem (DFID, 2005).


Internet

Including all communication, activity or content which takes place or is held on the world wide web (www) and cloud structures. This includes new online developments such as social media and networks (von Behr, Reding, Edwards, & Gribbon, 2013).


Lone-Actor Terrorist

A lone-actor terrorist operates as a single player; they do not have direct connection to an organised radical group; and therefore do not follow direct commands or influence of a radical group (Spaaij & Hamm, 2015).


Online Radicalisation

A process whereby individuals through their online interactions and exposures to various types of internet context, come to view violence as a legitimate method of solving social and political conflicts (Bermingham, Conway, Mclnerney, O’Hare, & Smeaton, 2009).


Personal Data

"Any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person’. An ‘identifiable natural person’, or ‘data subject’, is ‘one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person" (GDPR.EU, 2018a).


Propaganda

Propaganda generally takes the form of multimedia communications providing ideological or practical instruction, explanations, justifications or promotion of terrorist activities. Propaganda via the Internet may also include the use of video footage of violent acts of terrorism or video games developed by terrorist organisations that simulate acts of terrorism and encourage the viewer to engage in role-play, by acting as a virtual terrorist (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2007).


Radicalisation

Radicalisation as such is not a crime in the laws of the European Union and the EU member States. However, studies show that online and offline radical behaviours may be a push factor towards different forms of crimes punishable by law. More specifically, radicalization is a phased and complex process in which an individual or a group embraces a radical ideology or belief that accepts, uses or condones violence, including acts of terrorism. The process of radicalisation is a complex, varied and multifaceted phenomenon triggered by an interplay of different risk factors on the individual, the environmental and the societal level. Whilst we acknowledge this debate , we define radicalisation as “the process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism” (HM Government, 2011).


Sensitive Data

Sensitive Data are subject to more stringent data-protection safeguards. They include "personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person's sex life or sexual orientation" (GDPR.EU, 2018b).


Usability

The usability shows how effectively, efficiently and satisfactorily a user can interact with a user interface. Usability refers to the quality of a user's experience when interacting with products or systems, including websites, software, devices or applications. For the purposes of the project, usability marks how effectively, efficiently and satisfactorily the platform is for the LEAs (Usability.Gov, n.d.).


Validation

The proof that something is properly done. It is the confirmation, by examination and the provision of objective evidence, that the particular requirements for the intended use of the PROPHETS platform and its tools are fullfilled.